Housing and urban planning issues
Baja California Sur
is experiencing a housing deficit – the result of lack of land available for
building lots at reasonable prices, the shortage of funds to address urban
zoning, and the insufficiency of loans to obtain a decent dwelling.
State and municipal urban development plans need to be updated and the Housing
Institute of Baja California Sur (INVI) needs to be better coordinated with the
federal Saving and Subsidy for Progressive Housing Program (VivAh). At the
present time, VivAh’s investment in Baja California Sur is less than other
states with similar populations.
have been invited to participate by entering into agreements with the property
owners to sell vacant lots to INVI. INVI has a “build-it-yourself” program to
release federal financing, using services of technical experts to negotiate the
INVI debt, as well as programs that promote access to credit. In addition, the
state is considering creating a “land bank” for houses and lots, accompanied by
technical services provided by companies that construct low-cost housing.
housing, Baja California Sur exceeds the national average with regard to
dwellings with sewer, water, sewer, and electricity connections. Of the 105,229
dwellings recorded in Baja California Sur by the INEGI census in 2000, 89.34 %
of dwellings presently have sanitation services, including 85.77% with running
water and 79.27% with drainage. Only 2% of residents in the state do not have
any services at all.
As of 2003, 96% of the population has
electricity, putting the state above the national mean of 93%.
The proportion of dwellings with floors and roofs made of solid, durable
materials is also above the national average. However, the state has a greater
proportion of dwellings with roofs made of light, makeshift materials, which is
problematic during hurricane season.
Recent migration to
urban areas has led to uncontrolled settlements on the outskirts, creating
dangerous social and health conditions, principally in Los Cabos. Similar
problems are beginning to emerge in Loreto which has only begun to experience
increases in the level of urban development.
In La Paz, the
uncontrolled growth comes from the strong attraction of migrant population to
the capital. The resulting disorderly expansion is mainly in areas unsuitable
for human habitation, including arroyos and flood plains, generating not only a
negative impact on the environment and on living conditions but also creating
otherwise preventable public safety risks to those ultimately living in these
squatter settlements .
continues, pressure for additional land, especially in coastal areas is
increasing, particularly in La Paz, Loreto and Los Cabos. This situation is
problematic as it increases the demand for property, often resulting in
conflicts over ownership of communal and private parcels of land.
The state delegate of the Land Ownership Regularization Commission (CORETT),
Pedro Aguilar, commented that CORETT operates the Suelo Libre, or “Free
Soil,” program throughout Baja California Sur. The program creates land reserves
for urban growth by expropriating the lands of ejido communities, with
the consent of the ejidatarios, converting them into federal lands, and
regularizing them by giving deeds to the owners.
De este aspecto se encargan las siguientes instituciones:
Fideicomiso Fondo Nacional de Habitaciones Populares (FONHAPO),
Fondo de Operación y Financiamiento Bancario a la Vivienda (FOVI),
Instituto del Fondo Nacional de la Vivienda para los
Trabajadores (INFONAVIT), Fondo de la Vivienda del Instituto
de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del
Estado (FOVISSSTE), Instituto de Vivienda (INVI).
Gob. del Edo, Plan Estatal de Desarrollo, Baja California
Sur 1999-2005 [State Development Plan for BCS 1999-2005],
Gobierno del Estado de BCS, La Paz, 1999, pp. 48-49.
Gobierno del Estado de B.C.S., Compendio Estadístico
2001-2002: Municipios de Baja California Sur, Cuaderno de
Datos Básicos [Statistical Abstract 2001-2002:
Municipalities of BCS, Notebook of Basic Facts],
Gobierno del Estado de B.C.S., Secretaría de Promoción y
Desarrollo Económico, La Paz, Junio de 2003 (disco
Gobierno del Estado de B:C:S., Nuestro Gobierno, febrero
de 2003, Dirección General de Comunicación Social.
Coord. General de Proyectos Especiales, La Paz 2003, p. 7.
Ivanova, Antonina. Diagnóstico Estratégico.., Op.
cit., p. 155.
H. XI Ayuntamiento de La Paz. Plan Municipal de
Desarrollo, 2002-2005, p. 20-21.
Gobierno del Estado de B.C.S., Plan Estatal de
Desarrollo..., Op. cit., pp. 79-87.
Noticiero Panorama Informativo, Op. cit.,
26 de abril de 2004.